Esophagus tissue

Dictionary Normal tissue Esophagus Esophagus. Esophagus. The esophagus passes from the hypopharynx to the stomach, it is about 25-30 cm long and 2-3 cm wide. The esophagus is part of the digestive system but it does not have any absorptive or intrinsic digestive function The esophagus is about 8 inches long, and is lined by moist pink tissue called mucosa. The esophagus runs behind the windpipe (trachea) and heart, and in front of the spine Esophagus tissue is the tissue that forms the lining of the esophagus, the long tube that is connected to the pharynx at the top end and to the stomach at the bottom end. It is the primary mode of transport of ingested food or liquids from the mouth to the stomach for chemical breakdown. The esophagus is under involuntary control, so humans do not have a conscious control over its functions

Tissue distribution describes the transcript detection (NX≥1) in esophagus as well as in all other tissues. mRNA (tissue) shows the transcript level in esophagus as NX values. Tissue specificity score (TS) corresponds to the fold-change between the expression level in esophagus and the tissue with second highest expression level The mucosa layer forms the inner lining of the esophagus and is the only tissue layer that has direct contact with substances passing through the esophagus. Non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelial tissue makes up the majority of the mucosa layer and provides protection to the esophagus from rough food particles and acid from the nearby stomach The wall of the esophagus is formed by four layers: the mucosal membrane lining the inside of the esophagus; the submucosa below the mucous membrane housing the esophageal glands, the muscular layer consisting of an inner circular and an outer longitudinal layer, and the adventitia, which is formed by fibrous tissue covering the cervical and thoracic parts of the esophagus, while in the. The esophagus is a complex part of the body with many cooperative layers which perform different functions. Taken together the muscularis mucosa, the submucosa, and the connective tissue create a vital structure which renews itself regularly through mitosis in order to keep the body nourished Esophagitis (uh-sof-uh-JIE-tis) is inflammation that may damage tissues of the esophagus, the muscular tube that delivers food from your mouth to your stomach. Esophagitis can cause painful, difficult swallowing and chest pain. Causes of esophagitis include stomach acids backing up into the esophagus, infection, oral medications and allergies

Dictionary - Normal: Esophagus - The Human Protein Atla

  1. Aloe vera juice is one of the few natural remedies approved by the FDA for treating esophagus naturally. Aloe vera contains glycoproteins which help reduce irritation and inflammation on the esophagus. It also contains polysaccharides which help in tissue repair on the esophagus walls
  2. For most of its extent, the esophagus is retroperitoneal, so its outermost layer consists of a connective tissue adventitia which merges with the adjacent connective tissue associated with nearby structures (such as the trachea as shown in slide 126)
  3. Expression of MAP1LC3B (ATG8F) in esophagus tissue. Antibody staining with HPA052474, HPA052484, HPA053767 and CAB037216 in immunohistochemistry
  4. Also called pancreatic heterotopia At gastroesophageal junction in 16% of pediatric / young adult patients (Arch Pathol Lab Med 2000;124:1165) May be congenital and independent of Barrett esophagus (Am J Surg Pathol 1996;20:1507) Usually no clinical significance but theoretically may exacerbate reflux esophagitis; rarely exhibits pathologic changes of pancreatic tissue, including ductal.

The Esophagus (Human Anatomy): Picture, Function

For various esophageal diseases, the search for alternative techniques for tissue repair has led to significant developments in basic and translational research in the field of tissue engineering. Applied to the esophagus, this concept is based on the in vitro combination of elements judged necessar Expression of PRKCA (PKCA) in esophagus tissue. Antibody staining with HPA006563, HPA006564, CAB003844 and CAB016290 in immunohistochemistry

Epithelial Tissue | histology

Hence, although the esophagus is a simple tubular organ, it presents tremendous variations in histologic morphology along its entire length (from the pharynx to the gastroesophageal junction) that offer challenges in tissue engineering. Attempts at tissue engineering of the esophagus have demonstrated the feasibility of esophageal regeneration Human digestive system - Human digestive system - Esophagus: The esophagus, which passes food from the pharynx to the stomach, is about 25 cm (10 inches) in length; the width varies from 1.5 to 2 cm (about 1 inch). The esophagus lies behind the trachea and heart and in front of the spinal column; it passes through the diaphragm before entering the stomach Esophagus cancer tissue array with adjacent normal tissue, including pathology grade, TNM and clinical stage, 23 cases/ 72 cores: 23: 72: 382.50: ES701: Esophagus cancer tissue array with matched adjacent normal esophagus tissue, including pathology grade, TNM and clinical stage, 35 cases/70 cores: 35: 70: 247.50: ES150 Organ / tissue resected or biopsied Purpose of the procedure Gross appearance of lesions (e.g. mass, ulcer, stricture) Gross appearance of the tissue / lesion sampled Location of biopsies Upper, middle or lower esophagus How many cm from the incisors on EGD. Any unusual features of the clinical presentation E.g. history of caustic ingestio

Causes. The exact cause of Barrett's esophagus isn't known. While many people with Barrett's esophagus have long-standing GERD, many have no reflux symptoms, a condition often called silent reflux.. Whether this acid reflux is accompanied by GERD symptoms or not, stomach acid and chemicals wash back into the esophagus, damaging esophagus tissue and triggering changes to the lining of the. The esophagus is part of the tubular gastrointestinal system and it has the typical concentric layers of mucosa, submucosa, and muscularis externa. The vagina has the luminal epithelium and lamina propria in common with the esophagus, but none of the additional layers, as the vagina is a fibromuscular tube with indistinct inner circular and outer longitudinal muscle layers deep to the thick. Tissue‐engineered esophagus, a novel biologic substitute with tissue architecture and bio‐functions, has been believed to be a promising replacement in the future. However, the research of esophageal tissue engineering is still at the early stage People who have Barrett's esophagus often have an esophagus that looks red and velvety. Your doctor may also take a tissue sample that will allow them to understand what changes are going on in.

What is Esophagus Tissue? (with pictures) - wiseGEE

Esophagus (anterior view) The esophagus (oesophagus) is a 25 cm long fibromuscular tube extending from the pharynx (C6 level) to the stomach (T11 level). It consists of muscles that run both longitudinally and circularly, entering into the abdominal cavity via the right crus of the diaphragm at the level of the tenth thoracic vertebrae.. It actively facilitates the passage of the food bolus. The esophagus is made up of four layers of tissue. These layers are similar all throughout the whole digestive tract. The order of these layers from the inside out are: Picture 2: Different layers of the esophagus. Mucosa. There are three layers of the mucosa Esophagus cancer with matched cancer adjacent esophagus tissue array, including pathology grade, TNM and clinical stage (AJCC 8.0), 51 cases/102 cores (1.5 mm) The esophagus links the throat to the stomach. Reflux of stomach acid, unwillingly swallowed chemicals, and other irritants may cause damage to the esophageal lining, producing signs of inflammation and the development of scar tissue. This may progressively lead to a narrowing esophagus, stopping food and fluids from getting into stomach Also called gastric heterotopia, cervical inlet patch Most common form of heterotopia Usually in postcricoid region (may be difficult to examine endoscopically, South Med J 2006;99:865), found in 1 - 4% endoscopically (J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2004;19:891, Int J Clin Pract 2009;63:287) May be due to rests of gastric precursor cells that remain after original esophageal mucosa is replaced by.

The human proteome in esophagus - The Human Protein Atla

  1. Acute esophageal necrosis (AEN), black esophagus, or Gurvits syndrome is a rare esophageal disorder. AEN defines itself with dark pigmentation of the esophagus, found during an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Pigmentation is usually black friable mucosa. The disorder is extremely rare, as only 88 patients over a span of 40 years have received this diagnosis
  2. The esophagus is a tube that connects the throat (pharynx) and the stomach. Within it, muscles contract to move food to the stomach
  3. Epithelial Tissue: Epithelial tissue covers bodily surfaces as well as the inside of some organs. Based on cellular structure, epithelial tissue can be squamous, cuboidal, or columnar

This occurs when the tumor destroys the tissue between the esophagus and the trachea (windpipe) and creates a hole connecting them. Anything that is swallowed can then pass from the esophagus into the windpipe and lungs. This can lead to frequent coughing, gagging, or even pneumonia. This problem can be helped with surgery or an endoscopy. The esophagus wall. The wall of the esophagus has several layers: Mucosa: This layer lines the inside of the esophagus. It has 3 parts: The epithelium is the innermost lining of the esophagus and is normally made up of flat, thin cells called squamous cells.This is where most cancers of the esophagus start. The lamina propria is a thin layer of connective tissue right under the epithelium Stricturing, or narrowing, can be caused from acid in the stomach entering up into the esophagus causing the esophagus tissue to scar. Scar tissue may develop into a narrowing or tightness that could form a stricture which sometimes cause food, pills and/or liquids to get stuck

Esophagus - Anatomy Pictures and Informatio

Esophageal cancer is cancer arising from the esophagus—the food pipe that runs between the throat and the stomach. Symptoms often include difficulty in swallowing and weight loss. Other symptoms may include pain when swallowing, a hoarse voice, enlarged lymph nodes (glands) around the collarbone, a dry cough, and possibly coughing up or vomiting blood The adventitia is a layer of connective tissue that loosely supports and covers the outside of the esophagus in the neck and chest. Function. Although the esophagus is part of the digestive system, it doesn't actually play a role in digestion of food. But it is still an important organ in the GI tract

Esophagus - Anatom

Lamina propria: fibrovascular connective tissue between epithelium and muscularis mucosae; folds into slender papillae that projects into epithelium, usually less than 2/3 of epithelial thickness; may contain gastric cardia-like mucus glands lined by foveolar-like cells with neutral mucin (PASD positive, Alcian blue at pH 2.5 negative), particularly in distal esophagus; also scattered. Acid reflux can happen to anyone, but it is more commonly found in people over the age of 40, says Wake. When the gastroesophageal, or peptic, acid is repeatedly pushed into the esophagus, the walls of the organ become inflamed. The inflammation leads to scarring, which after healing, sits under newer layers of inflamed tissue The trachea lies anterior to the esophagus and is connected to it by a loose connective tissue. Posteriorly, it is related to prevertebral muscles and prevertebral fascia covering the bodies of sixth and seventh cervical vertebra. The thoracic duct lies on the left side at the level of the sixth cervical vertebra You esophagus is the tube that carries food and liquids from your mouth to your stomach. Esophagus problems include GERD (reflux), cancer, esophagitis, and spasms. Learn about symptoms and treatments The esophagus is a muscular tube-like structure (about 10 inches long in adults) that connects the mouth to the stomach and is the first part of the gastrointestinal tract.; Cancer or malignant cells are abnormally formed or mutated body cells that may grow to form tissue masses or tumors that can spread to other organs.; The two main types of this cancer are adenocarcinoma and squamous cell.

Esophageal cancer (esophageal carcinoma) is cancer that occurs in the esophagus which connects the mouth to the stomach. It is a rare type of cancer, but can be very aggressive Results showed that the model marginally outperformed the current sliding window approach on a data set of esophagus tissue with 4 classes (normal, BE-no-dysplasia, BE-with-dysplasia, and adenocarcinoma). Previous methods for analyzing microscopy images were limited by bounding box annotations and unscalable heuristics Tissue Engineering and the Future of Regenerative Medicine. The lab-grown esophagus is the latest in a growing series of medical breakthroughs made possible with tissue engineering. Last week, a British team of researchers announced that they'd successfully rebuilt the deteriorated thymus of old lab mice Barrett's esophagus is a complication of chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). GERD is the reflux of acidic fluid from the stomach into the esophagus, and is classically associated with heartburn. Learn more about Barrett's estophagus, including symptoms and causes

Barrett's esophagus, damage to the lining of your esophagus, which can lead to a precancerous change in the tissue stricture , or narrowing, of the esophagus that can lead to obstruction and. Barrett's esophagus can only be seen through an endoscope (a thin, flexible, device used to look inside the body) but always requires surgical tissue specimens (biopsies) for diagnosis. Normally, the point where the red tissue that lines the stomach (gastric mucosa) ends and the paler pink squamous esophageal mucosa begins sharply demarcates the junction between the stomach and the esophagus Tissue - Esophagus ))) Map to. UniProtKB (80) Swiss-Prot. Format. Synonyms. Oesophagus; Tools. BLAST; Align; Retrieve/ID mapping; Peptide search; Core data. Protein knowledgebase (UniProtKB) Sequence clusters (UniRef) Sequence archive (UniParc) Proteomes; Supporting data. Literature.

Barrett's tissue has a different appearance than the normal lining of the esophagus and is visible during endoscopy. Taking a sample of the tissue from the esophagus through an endoscope only slightly lengthens the procedure time, causes no discomfort and rarely causes complications This scarring, which causes the esophagus to narrow and to catch solid food, is called a stricture of the esophagus. Usually when strictures are found, we dilate the esophagus at the time of your upper endoscopy. At the same time, we either start or increase your drugs that reduce the amount of acid that the stomach makes Normal esophagus tissue appears pale and glossy. In Barrett's esophagus, the tissue appears red and velvety. Your doctor will remove tissue (biopsy) from your esophagus. The biopsied tissue can be examined to determine the degree of change. Determining the degree of tissue change Anatomy of the Esophagus. The esophagus is a muscular tube about ten inches (25 cm.) long, extending from the hypopharynx to the stomach.The esophagus lies posterior to the trachea and the heart and passes through the mediastinum and the hiatus, an opening in the diaphragm, in its descent from the thoracic to the abdominal cavity.The esophagus has no serosal layer; tissue around the esophagus. Granulation tissue with scattered large, atypical mesenchymal cells resembling carcinoma but not forming solid clusters Adjacent epithelium has reactive changes and prominent hyperplasia (pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia) that appear as uniformly thick, parallel prongs of primitive squamous cells that penetrate the granulation tissue of the ulcer be

Gastrointestinal Tract - Liver Histology - Embryology

What Type of Tissue Lines the Esophagus? - Reference

Esophagus The primary physiologic role of the esophagus is the physical transport of ingesta from the oral cavity to the stomach. The esophageal mucosa is composed of a superficial layer of stratified squamous epithelium. Beneath the mucosa lie variable numbers of mucous glands, which produce mucus to lubricate and facilitate passage of digesta Barrett's esophagus is a condition in which tissue that is similar to the lining of your intestine replaces the tissue lining your esophagus. People with Barrett's esophagus may develop a rare cancer called esophageal adenocarcinoma. Experts don't know the exact cause of Barrett's esophagus. However.

Esophagitis - Symptoms and causes - Mayo Clini

The esophagus is a hollow muscular tube that's responsible for moving food from the throat to the stomach. Esophageal cancer can occur when a malignant tumor forms in the lining of the esophagus. In combination with esomeprazole, short-term administration of higher doses of aspirin, but not lower doses or no aspirin, significantly reduced tissue concentrations of PGE(2) in patients with BE with either no dysplasia or low-grade dysplasia. These data support further evaluation of higher doses

The vagina provides an instructive contrast with the esophagus. The vagina and the esophagus are both tubular organs with a mucosa lined by non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium. Hence these two organs appear superficially similar. However, bundles of smooth muscle are interwoven with connective tissue throughout the wall of the vagina, so that there is no clear demarcation of. Scleroderma of the esophagus - one of the manifestations of systemic scleroderma - a progressive disease characterized by changes in connective tissue with the development of sclerosis and obliterating lesions of arterioles. Systemic scleroderma is referred to the group of diffuse connective tissue diseases. , , , , , , Barrett's esophagus is a condition in which there is an abnormal (metaplastic) change in the mucosal cells lining the lower portion of the esophagus, from normal stratified squamous epithelium to simple columnar epithelium with interspersed goblet cells that are normally present only in the small intestine, and large intestine.This change is considered to be a premalignant condition because it. Esophagus connects the pharynx to the stomach. Giant fibrovascular polyp - loose connective tissue covered with squamous epithelium. Granular cell tumour. Squamous papilloma - koilocytes. Heterotopic gastric mucosa (inlet patch) - benign appearing gastric mucosa Attention-Based Deep Neural Networks for Detection of Cancerous and Precancerous Esophagus Tissue on Histopathological Slides JAMA Netw Open. 2019 Nov 1;2(11):e1914645. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.14645. Authors.

The esophagus wants to protect itself, so the cells in the lining begin to change, says Memorial Sloan Kettering thoracic surgeon Daniela Molena. The normal tissue lining the esophagus begins resembling the lining of the stomach or intestine Esophageal cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the esophagus. The esophagus is the hollow, muscular tube that moves food and liquid from the throat to the stomach.The wall of the esophagus is made up of several layers of tissue, including mucous membrane, muscle, and connective tissue. Esophageal cancer starts on the inside lining of the esophagus and. Tissue Systems Pathology Test Objectively Risk Stratifies Barrett's Esophagus Patients with Low-Grade Dysplasia, accepted in American Journal of Gastroenterolog Barrett's Esophagus . Barrett's esophagus is a precancerous change in the tissue lining the esophagus, often caused by long-standing GERD. If you have had chronic GERD with symptoms of heartburn, your doctor may recommend a test to evaluate for Barrett's esophagus

inner most layer of esophagus lined by stratified squamous non-keratinized epithelium resting on basement membrane.surface epithelium may contain a few cells belonging to apud cell system. lamina propria: loose connective tissue layer beneath the epithelium ,folded into many finger like projections called papillae. muscularis mucosa/interna Pharynx & Esophagus Pharynx. Food is forced into the pharynx by the tongue. When food reaches the opening, sensory receptors around the fauces respond and initiate an involuntary swallowing reflex. This reflex action has several parts. The uvula is elevated to prevent food from entering the nasopharynx The esophagus is the tube that connects the mouth to the stomach. This tissue replacement is referred to as intestinal metaplasia. The cause of this rare condition is not entirely known, and it.

Esophagus, the official journal of the Japan Esophageal Society, introduces practitioners and researchers to significant studies in the fields of benign and malignant diseases of the esophagus.The journal welcomes original articles, review articles, and short articles including technical notes ( How I do it ), which will be peer-reviewed by the editorial board Esophagus tissue engineering: in vitro generation of esophageal epithelial cell sheets and viability on scaffold. Saxena AK(1), Ainoedhofer H, Höllwarth ME. Author information: (1)Department of Pediatric and Adolescent Surgery, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria. amulya.saxena@meduni-graz.a 12 cases of esophageal cancer, each in duplicates, paired with adjacent normal tissues. Microarray Panel: Human Esophagus Tissue (Tumor) Cores: 24 Size: 2.5 mm Cut: 4 um Format: 4X6 QA/QC H&E, IHC anti-Cytokeratin 12 cases of esophageal cancer with corresponding uninvolved tissues from the same patients as controls. All the tissues were from surgical resection Second, instead of the esophagus being free as it courses through the thoracic cavity, it is embedded in the connective tissue; thus, its outer tunic is referred to as adventitia instead of serosa. In its role as the first conduit in the digestive tube, the esophagus is routinely exposed to rough and abrasive foodstuffs, like fragments of bone, fibrous plant leaves and Doritos

Digestive system disease - Digestive system disease - Esophagus: Difficulty in swallowing (dysphagia) may be the only symptom of a disorder of the esophagus. Sometimes dysphagia is accompanied by pain (odynophagia), or pain may occur spontaneously without swallowing being involved. The esophagus does nothing to alter the physical or chemical composition of the material it receives, and it is. Selection and Application of Tissue microRNAs for Nonendoscopic Diagnosis of Barrett's Esophagus Xiaodun Li , 1, ∗ Sam Kleeman , 1, ∗ Sally B. Coburn , 2 Carlo Fumagalli , 1 Juliane Perner , 3 Sriganesh Jammula , 3 Ruth M. Pfeiffer , 2 Linda Orzolek , 4 Haiping Hao , 4 Philip R. Taylor , 2 Ahmad Miremadi , 5 Núria Galeano-Dalmau , 1 Pierre Lao-Sirieix , 1 Maria Tennyson , 1 Shona MacRae. For example, the esophagus is lined with stratified epithelium. That's because the esophagus will have food coming through it. The food might be sharp, it might be hot and we want a thick layer of cells to protect the underlying tissue of the esophagus. A stratified layer epithelium acts as that protective layer Shotgun Histology Esophagus Results. Tissue-engineered esophagus grows in sufficient quantity for interposition grafting. Histology reveals a complete esophageal wall, including mucosa, submucosa, and muscularis propria, which was confirmed by means of immunohistochemical staining for α-actin smooth muscle

Expression of MPG in esophagus tissue. Antibody staining with HPA006531 in immunohistochemistry Methods. We obtained biopsies from regions of the glandular tissue of BE and normal esophagus from 9 subjects with BE. Samples from 5 subjects were examined as whole tissue (BE [whole]; E [whole]), and in 4 subjects the glandular epithelium of BE was isolated using LCM (BE [LCM]) and compared to the averaged values (E [LCM]) for both basal cell (B [LCM]) and squamous cell (S [LCM]) epithelium There are currently no images for Esophagus Tissue Micro Array (NBP2-78089). Every product we sell is backed by Novus' 100% Guarantee.If you have used this product, please submit your images and reviews to earn reward points

The scar tissue narrows the food pathway, leading to problems with swallowing. An open sore in the esophagus (esophageal ulcer). Stomach acid can wear away tissue in the esophagus, causing an open sore to form. An esophageal ulcer can bleed, cause pain and make swallowing difficult. Precancerous changes to the esophagus (Barrett's esophagus) Impact Statement. In vivo functional esophageal reconstruction remains challenging due to anastomosis site leakage and necrosis of the implanted scaffold in a circumferential esophageal defect. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a tissue-engineered esophagus that enables regeneration of esophageal mucosa and muscle without leakage of the esophageal anastomosis At a level of diaphragmatic hiatus, a soft areolar tissue connects esophagus to diaphragmatic cruses, and a slight concave area called portal concavity allows formation of a hiatal hernia. The area between aortic arch and esophagus is comprised of aorticoesophagial muscle fibers that include large vessels; dissection of this area is fairly simple, except in the case of tumor invasion

Best Natural Remedies for Healing Esophagus Damage After

Replacement engineered esophagus tissue grown from stem cells was shown in tests with pigs to be a feasible alternative to transplanting pieces from other parts of the body for people with esophagus cancer The esophagus was wrapped by the nearby lung tissue petal to form an encystation in the breakage place, and the edge of esophagus breakage was sutured continuously with a 3-0 silk suture. Then, the stomach tube was withdrawn to release the stress and return the esophagus Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas arise not only in the gut but also in the lung (bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue: BALT), thyroid (derived from the primitive foregut), salivary glands, skin, conjunctiva, soft tissue, dura, orbit, and liver. 1 Within the gastrointestinal tract, the stomach is the most common site of MALT lymphoma, although these tumors have been reported. The esophagus is lined with many layers of epithelial, muscular, and connective tissue. The layer in contact with the lumen is the epithelial layer of the mucosa, it is lined with stratified.

Esophagus Biopsy. Esophageal biopsies are considered more useful for establishing a diagnosis of reflux disease in infants than in adults. From: Surgical Pathology of the GI Tract, Liver, Biliary Tract, and Pancreas (Second Edition), 2009 Related terms Barrett's esophagus is a condition in which the tissue lining the esophagus - the tube that passes the food from the mouth to the stomach - is replaced by tissue similar to that of the.


Pharynx, Esophagus, and Stomach histolog

Esophagus, surface, thin-section - 100X This image shows the mucosa of the esophagus (arrow bar) in more detail. The mucosa contains three layers of tissue. The surface of the mucosa is stratified squamous nonkeratinized epithelium (e). Underneath or outside that is a thin layer of loose c.t. called the lamina propria (lp) The stomach receives food from the esophagus. During an endoscopy, a doctor can take a small piece of stomach tissue for tests. This can diagnose H. pylori infection, cancer,. Polyp pathology: (esophagus) liver tissue . Microscopically, blood vessels and small bile duct structures were observed in the fibrous connective tissue, and banded epithelioid cells were attached to the edges. The cells were polygonal. Meantime, the nucleus was large, round, and centered. And the cytoplasm was rich as well as eosinophilic

Gunshot Wound to Lower Leg with Soft Tissue and BoneBronchi Anatomy | Bronchial Wall Anatomy | Bronchus Wall

Barrett's esophagus is a condition in which the lining of the esophagus changes into tissue similar to that found in the intestines. While this is not dangerous in itself, there is an increased risk in developing esophageal cancer in those who have Barrett's The walls of the esophagus consist of a layer of areolar tissue, an underlying muscular layer of external longitudinal and internal circular fibers, and a submucous layer and mucous membrane; the glands are situated in the submucous layer and the mucous membrane. The esophagus is innervated by the sympathetic, vagus, and cerebrospinal nerves

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